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Historical dictionary of Mali by Imperato, Pascal James. Historical dictionary of Mauritania by Pazzanita, Anthony G. Historical dictionary of Morocco by Park, Thomas Kerlin. Historical dictionary of Mozambique by Mario Azevedo. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends.

Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Find out about Lean Library here. Skip to main content. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs. Article Menu. Download PDF. Cite Citation Tools. How to cite this article If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice.

Download Citation If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Share Share. Recommend to a friend. Sharing links are not available for this article. I have read and accept the terms and conditions. The Mediterranean cruiser that sails along the coasts of Mauritania and Numidia hails the classic kingdoms of larba, of Dido, of Juba, of Jugurtha, of Siphax, and of Massinissa. The traveller while pacing its sunny shore recalls the glories and the heresies of the North-African church; its Cyprian, its Augustine, its Hippo Regius, and its Cirta.

Passing the supposed site of the ruins of Utica, his mind dwells on the heroic death of Cato, the last Republican, whose lofty spirit preferred a violent death, rather than bend to the general oppression ol the empire; standing on the ruins of Carthage, he reflects on the revolutions of empires, the Scipios, Hannibal, and llegulus. The image of the gentle, saintly king of France floats before him, as he lies on his couch of ashes on that pestilential shore.

Crossing to Goletta, the fort of Tunis, he sees the walls and towers that be ir witness to the Christian zeal and valour of a Spanish emperor and a British admiral. In one place he crosses a river in whose turbid stream the veteran Massinissa found his last home; farther on, he reaches the spot where Genseric and his Vandal host, descending from Spain on the devoted land, proceeded to convert the granary of Rome into a howling wilderness.

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Not far hence he views the plain where the Greek army of the gallant Belisarius levelled the Vandal pride with the dust. Or if he visits the crumbling battlements of Kairwan, Tlemsen, or Fez, his mind reverts to the days of Arab glory, when the gallant hand of Islam flashed like a meteor over the valleys and plains of Mauritania, and plunging on their fiery chargers into the Western Ocean, threatened to reduce the stormy sea into subjection to the Crescent. A melancholy grandeur hovers over this historical land, and the shades of might; hosts and nations long since gathered to their fathers seem still to linger and haunt its spectral cities.

By , after commercial slavery had officially been abolished , but not necessary honored by all nations, British traders pulled out of Mauritania and established themselves in Gambia, leaving Mauritania in the hands of the French.

Mauritania Politics and Democracy Intention

The French occupied the country in close cooperation with Maur religious leaders. The most important common denominator has become Sunni Islam. One of the moat interesting of recent cases is that of the Great auk, or Alca-impennis. No living specimen has been obtained for 40 years. The auk was about three feet in height, its wings only three or four inches long.

It was an inhabitant of the very highest latitudes, and at one time extremely common in the Arctic seas. The ancient shell-heaps on the Atlantic coast show abundant remains of this bird as far south as tbe New-England coast. Vuttall, in , records the birds as then breeding in great numbers. They breed in the Faroe Islands and in Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland, nesting among tbe cliffs, laying but one egg each.

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They are so unprolific that if this egg is destroyed no other is laid during the season. It is sometimes known to lay at St. Kilda and in Papa Wastra.

Historical dictionary of Western Sahara

In the last known to be alive on the eastern continent were seen at Iceland. The single egg that the great auk yearly deposited was evidently not enough to insure its preservation, and year after year it became less abundant, perhaps killed by the Indians along our coast. Finally, the last one was destroyed, and in years more its existence will be a legend, and the steel engravings of the present specimens the only reminders of the giant of the auks. Two hundred and fifty years ago, a number of curious birds abounded in the Island of Mauritius, and were so common that sailors killed them in wanton sport; while to-day a good specimen would bring several thousands of dollars.

In they were found in great numbers, but in , when the French took possession of the island, not a dodo was round. This and the Solitaire have totally disappeared In this brief period.

Historical Dictionary of Western Sahara

The former waa a sluggish bird weighing about 50 pounds a gigantic pigeon. It is evident that the dodo was not killed to eat, and, indeed, some of the old works state that the sailors destroyed them for the curious polished stone found In their crops. At this, or probably an earlier time, there lived in tbe Island of Madagascar a race of gigantic ostrich-like birds known as the Epinornis.

In a report to tbe French Academy of Sciences M. St Hillaire described some of their eggs.