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The shocking infant mortality rates of industrial Montreal in the last quarter of the 19th century — running to deaths out of every 1, births — barely surpassed Nanaimo in with per 1, births. What Nanaimo and most the Cape Breton mining towns had in common was the fact that they were essentially single industry communities. The same was true of Drumheller from , the Crowsnest Pass colliery towns, the Kootenay hardrock mining towns, and a great number of lumber mill towns across the Maritimes and much of the rest of the country.

In British Columbia, there was a cohort of 25 towns with population of between to about 2, people that sprang into existence around These were primarily mining towns and the largest share of them were in the Kootenays.

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Only a handful existed a decade earlier and some would become ghost towns by Communities like these were many and they proved to be highly vulnerable to changes in the economic weather. The transportation systems of the past leave indelible fingerprints on the dimensions of our cities. Take a look at the oldest part s of your city or town. How wide are the streets? Can one conclude from this that people in the past were much thinner than they are now or that Winnipeggers need wider roads to negotiate a turn?

The answer can be found in the dominant transportation technology of the day. Most of the carting that was done was powered by human legs.

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And the turning radius of a handcart is very narrow. The turning radius of a team of oxen pulling a wagon is necessarily very large. In between are the cities where horse traffic dominated. The warehouses of Gastown, in Vancouver, depended on fleets of carters whose moderate-sized horses had to be able to make a U-turn with a small wagon in tow.

Late 19th and early 20th century cities were typically horse towns. The introduction of streetcars added a new wrinkle, as can be seen across Vancouver where the streetcar system rapidly outstripped the building of neighbourhoods.

1913 in Canada

Before the arrival of the automobile, these various forms of transportation — foot, hoof, electricity-powered streetcar, and bicycles, too — shared the streets in a way that blends the orderly and the chaotic, as can be seen in this film taken from the front of a streetcar in Vancouver , filmed by United States filmmaker and victim of the Titanic sinking William Harbeck. Where you live and where you work is shaped by the dominant infrastructure of the day.

Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter 3. Street by Street Figure 3. Figure 3.

Some of the oldest buildings had stables in their basements. Key Points Urbanization in the period before the s was a diverse and uneven process. New cities in the West were challenging the lead held by Central and Eastern Canadian cities. Cities increasingly developed sections exclusively occupied by higher or lower social classes, in which conditions were very different. Wilson, Canada Dept. Catherine and St.


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Tla-o-qui-aht Clayoquot. Netsilingmiut Netsilik Inuit. Tseshaht Sheshaht. Haisla Kitamaat. Tsilhqot'in Chilcotin. Haudenosaunee Six Nations or Iroquois. Northern Georgia Strait Coast Salish. Tsuut'ina Sarcee. Hupacasath Opetchesaht. Nunavimmiut Ungava Inuit. The first medical schools in Canada were established in the s. Charles Duncombe , but closed when its benefactor, Thomas Talbot , withdrew his support, suspecting correctly that Duncombe was using the dispensary as a stepping stone into politics.

Indeed, many of Canada's early doctors became actively involved in politics. A second medical school, which eventually became affiliated with Victoria College now part of the University of Toronto , was founded by the reformer Dr. John Rolph.

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In late , the Montreal Medical Institution, established by Dr. Caldwell and his associates and later absorbed by the medical faculty of McGill University , began to give classes. The founding of medical schools in Canada was inspired by various motives, including the desire of doctors who invariably founded the schools to teach along lines of which they approved and to ensure a source of income for themselves. They were supported by those who felt that many Canadians who sought education in the United States were being inadequately trained and were being exposed to dangerous democratic principles.

In the United States, many medical schools became commercial operations willing to lower standards to attract students, but in Canada the schools sought affiliation with universities and maintained high standards of entry, in order to discourage charlatans or quacks and to improve the public reputation of doctors. By the s, students in medical schools in Canada typically attended lectures on materia medica and therapeutics, anatomy and physiology, principles and practices and surgery, midwifery and the diseases of women and children, and medical jurisprudence.

There was some dissection but little laboratory work it was not until the mids, when William Osler took over the chair at McGill , that microscopes would be used in any extensive way. The dissecting rooms were known as "dead-houses. According to author Donald Jack, the dissecting room was located in the dining room of an old cottage and contained "two tables, a few chairs, a pile of sawdust, a shovel in the corner, old coats and aprons and hooks along the walls. A trapdoor in the floor led to the cellar, where two large vats, filled with ancient wood alcohol and other things, permeated the whole building with their odours.

New medical students were initiated into dissecting by being forced down to the cellar to retrieve the cadavers.